Princess Serena found out that her feet were smelly. She wanted to humiliate her feet and when she noticed her feet were stinking, she got an idea. She decided to use those feet to humiliate and punish her slave and that is what she did. She forced her slave to lick her feet as well as her shoes and the poor guy had no choice but to do what he was ordered.
Mistress Roxy lied to her slave that she was going away. She went away for hours then surprised her slave when she came back abruptly. She had even taken her suitcase and she looked like someone who was going away for a couple of days. When she came and found him doing the stuff she had warned him against, she trampled him and she made him lick her shoes and her feet as punishment.
Mistress Emily knows that she can get someone to give her anything she wants if she gets him or her to a trampling box. Today she wanted to teach this girl to respect other people and she used her trampling box to do it. She inserted his face in it and she crushed it with her bare feet. She also made him lick her bare feet which were dirty and sweaty.
Mistress Morgan had never had her feet licked. She saw that online and she was fascinated by it. She wanted to try foot licking so she got a loser and flirted with him and took him home. When she reached home, she turned on him and she made him lick her shoes including the soles. And when he was done, she made him lick her bare feet and suck her toes too.
Princess Serena found her slave had not prepared breakfast for her. She called him downstairs and she trampled him using her boots. She made him lick the dirty soles of her boots till they were clean. When she was done, she made him prepare breakfast for him and told him to make sure he kept time. She told him a repeat of the same mistake would attract a worse punishment from her.
Lady Krasaviza likes her boots clean. Whenever they are dirty, her feet sweat and smell and when that happens her slave has to face the music. So it is in his best interests to make sure her boots are clean. He had forgotten to clean them and when she went home in the evening, she made him lick her sweaty and smelly feet. She also crushed him using the boots.
Lady Karame was relaxing in her house when she noticed this guy looking at her. She did not feel ok having him stare at her for that long so she called him over and when he went, she forced him to lick her bare feet and she had made sure they were a bit dirty by stepping on her garden before she had him lick them clean as punishment for staring at her incessantly.
Mistress Erika likes punctuality and when her slave failed being punctual, she gave him a piece of her mind and it was not pretty. She used her dirty shoes to do it. She made him lick the dirty soles of her boots and he was required to lick them clean. He tried to protest but one look at him from the mistress and he did what she ordered him to do.
Lady Karame and her friend had to teach this guy some manners. Theirs was a quiet neighborhood and he had recently moved in. He was used to playing loud music but the mistresses did not want it. They had tried to tell him politely not to do it but he did not listen. So they made him do it by making him lick their feet and also smothering him using their asses.
Mistresses Candy, Emily and Rose were hanging out together when they got bored and decided to try something they saw online earlier. They wanted to try foot licking but they did not have a slave to lick their feet. Since they could not lick their own feet, they decided to bet and the loser of the bet would be the slave for the day. Mistress Emily lost and was the slave for the day and was made to lick the other mistress' feet.
Madame Madison did not like how her slave had cleaned her shoes. He was rushing to finish all his chores in time and in the process, he had done some substandard work. She was pissed and she punished him for the substandard work. She spat on the soles of her shoes and she made him lick the spit and the soles. She made sure the soles were licked till they were clean.
Mistresses Esther, Nancy and Rosie wanted to try what they had seen online earlier. They had been fascinated by foot licking fetish and had to try it. The only problem was that they did not have a slave and did not know how to get one. So they decided to try it among themselves. They started a game and whoever lost would be the slave and be made to lick the feet of others.
Madame Madison loves getting her feet licked. She had a new slave who did not know how to do it the way she wanted. So she decided to teach him. That day she came home from work early to do that. She sat on a bar stool in the kitchen counter and she made him kneel down in front of her. She started by making him lick her shoes. Then she inserted her feet in his mouth and he licked them. She also made him sniff her feet.
Goddess Candy likes to humiliate those slaves who do not do what she says. This slave did not seem to know what she wanted so she had to refresh her memory. And she did it in a way the slave did not expect. She made the slave lick her sweaty and smelly feet and suck her stinking toes before she was able to tell her what she wanted and how she wanted it.
Madame Madison wanted her gym clothes washed but when she was preparing to go to the gym, she found that only one pair of her gym clothes was clean. She wore it but punished him for not washing the others. She made him lick the soles of her shoes and crushed him and trampled his face as punishment. She told him to wash them before she came back from the gym.
Madame Madison was not in any mood to be disturbed. But her slave was watching a movie loudly and she was upset. She called him to where she was and she made him lick her dirty boots clean. She told him if he did it again, she would do something to him that he will live to regret for the rest of his life. The slave obeyed and did as told.
This sexy mistress walks around in the mud with her riding outfit on and gets her boots nice and muddy and dirty. She gets them full of dirt then puts them in your face so you can lick all he dirt off. She knows you worship her feet and you will do anything to get close to her so she makes you polish her muddy riding boots with your tongue.
Dominating Mistress Pepper relaxes while her loser foot slave worships her feet. He licks her high heel boots polishing them with his tongue. Instead of rewarding him, she gives him more punishment by trampling him. Her high heel boots dig into his back as she walks all over him like a human carpet smashing his body with her full weight. He just lies there taking the domination and humiliation because hes' used to it.
This old bald slave worships and licks the feet of a mother and daughter as they lie on the bed. One of them has bare feet and the other has nylons. He licks their sweaty, stinky feet and shoves them in his mouth licking the dirt off then one of them shoves one foot in his mouth and slaps in the face several times with the other for extra humiliation.
Lady Eva holds her pretty but stinky feet up so her masked slave can lick them. The sole licking causes her feet to become wet with his saliva. This is how she cleans all the dirt off the bottom of her feet. She can get her feet cleaned and humiliate her masked slave at the same time. She makes sure to make him suck her toes as well and lick between them.
This loser slave didn't do the chores he was supposed to do so this dominating mistress makes him lie on the ground in the stable and wait for his punishment. She walks over to him wearing sexy boots and stomps through a pile of horse dung. She turns him over and forces him into humiliating bootlicking until he polishes all the messy shit off her boots with his tongue.
This collection of six videos shows high heel shoes worship at its best. You can count with some beautiful and sexy mistresses getting their high heeled shoes licked and cleaning by a foot slave. Licking dirty soles and sucking on high heels in private or in public places. The foot worship can be done everywhere as long as the mistress demands punishment and humiliation. The slave must obey and submit to her.
After the whole day on high heels, Goddess Victoria and Goddess Bianca need their sweaty feet clean and relaxing. For that they used their foot slave. He started by licking their dirty high heel shoes, then smelling their sexy dirty feet and doing some sole licking to remove all that sweat and bad smell. In the end he had a pantyhose inside his mouth while smelling their smelly feet, what better humiliation than this?
This mistress hates sweating. When her feet did, she made her slave lick her feet clean. And she did not ask politely, she made her slave do it
Alycia loves controlling guys. This new guy in her apartment had to go through the same. She invited him to her house and humiliated him by making him lick her stinky feet
The teacher tries to teach these girls a lesson that they're just not interested in, and they wish to humiliate him instead. One leads the group, wearing pink tennis shoes and tight jeans. We see that her shoes are filthy from playing outside, and so she uses them to punish their teacher as she tramples on his back and stomps on his hands. He feels the humiliation as they all watch and join in to stomp on his body and hands.
A sexy blonde sits in a chair in full winter clothes. She just spent the day walking around in her dirty old boots and now she comes up with stinky feet and sweaty socks. The foot slave that she keeps at home waits for her stinky feet and she takes them out of her dirty boots. He proceeds to licks the bottom of her socks and then she forces him to put her whole foot in his mouth to humiliate him.
The schools girls are wearing their warming winter boots and that makes their feet stink throughout the whole day. Their teacher calls them up to the front of the class and they do not respect him. They throw him to the floor and force him to lick their dirty boots while lying on the ground. One holds his body down with her whole body while the other shoves her boot in his face forcing him to lick it and makes sure that he likes it.
Sweetbaby Buffalo puts on her dirtiest boots to stomp all over her man in the kitchen without wiping her boots at the door. She makes sure he is lying on the ground as she sits at a neaby chair and wipes her boots with his face. She stands up to walk all over his body, making sure to put pressure on his chest and she dominates his body with her big leather boots. She crushes his nose and his crotch in one motion.
Facesitting on slaves is what this mistress likes. But today, she did not want to just facesit on him. She also made him lick her feet
This mistress has stinky feet because she likes to have them smelled and licked by her slaves. That is how she likes to humiliate them
Look how sexy my high heel boots are slave. I want you to polish them nice and clean. You must wear a mask so you can feel extra humiliated as you do my bidding and worship my feet. Open your mouth so I can ash in it like it was a human ashtray. Now finish licking my boots clean with you tongue. Your mouth is good for nothing but this.
My slave did not do what i told him to do. So he must get punished. I made him strip down to his panty and then made him lick my dirty soles and the dirty floor
She had gorgeous feet. But Lady Julina likes to have them licked and her toes sucked. And all this is while they are sweaty and stinky
Kimberly and her friend took a girl from a rival group and punished her to send a message to her group. They made her lick their sweaty and stinky feet
This mistress is sexy. But if you want to turn her on, you first have to lick her feet and sometimes her boots
Cassandra knows exactly what she wants and how she plans on getting it. She has a slave that is really wealthy and he also loves shoes. Therefore she is going to tell him to hand over all of his credit cards, so she is able to go online and start shopping for a new pair of high heels. The slave is going to worship her feet as she is doing all of her shopping online.
A slave will get a great view of the bottom of her foot. The slave never gets a chance to be standing eye to eye with this lovely mistress, because the slave has been trained to crawl inside her house and always remain on the ground. That is how a submissive slave is trained to know their place. She will then make the slave worship and clean her dirty feet from the ground.
Amelia is famous for taking long jogs around her neighborhood. She loves the feeling of getting a great workout, but she also has other plans for her sneakers. What she plans on doing is having over her slave so that they can worship her really smelly and stinky sneakers. She finds it hilarious to watch them dread the fact they are going to put their face and her smelly sneakers.
When this mistress barks out orders, she always expects them to be done without being questioned. None of her slaves ever ask her any questions. As a matter of fact they all dropped to their knees and do exactly as she says otherwise they know they are in for a great deal of harsh humiliation. She has every one of her slaves trained properly and they never second guess anything she says.
This pretty blonde mistress has really sexy feet that all of her slaves completely adore. They are always trying to worship her feet and let her know that they will endure a type of humiliation she would like to dish out to them. However, she always has a preference for which slaves she wants to do what type of worship with. Most of the time it's with her most pathetic slave.
A Polish mistress loves to wear pantyhose throughout her day, but she also likes to change them whenever her pantyhose began to feel sweaty. This is when she invites her slave over, because she thinks it's the perfect time for him to worship her dirty pantyhose and anything else she feels needs to be cleaned with his tongue. She can be very mean and cruel to her slave, and she does not care.
This cute mistress has really cute feet, but she also has a naughty side to wear that one of her roommates is about to find out about. She will instruct her roommate to open her mouth, because she is about to stick her toes right inside her female roommates mouth so that she can clean and suck all of her feet. Danielle is so dominating and manipulative.
When Amelia demands that her feet are clean, it means her slave had better get ready to serve her correctly. Her feet are obviously dirty from a long day at work, so that means her slave had better open his mouth and get ready to do everything possible to clean her feet until they are suitable for her approval. She does not mess around when it is time to get her feet cleaned.
A slave is used to worshiping his mistress's feet, but he never bargained for her friend joining in the session. His mistress has invited a friend over that is going to be just as demanding to him. He must open his mouth and worship her feet and do exactly as she says otherwise the two ladies are going to humiliate him and they might even slap them as well.
This mistress could really care less when she is making a slave worship her feet. She is so cruel that she does not even look at him as he is worshiping her shoes and her bare feet. She is letting him know that he is absolutely pathetic in her opinion and he should be so privileged to be in her presence cleaning and worshiping her feet no matter how dirty they might be.
This pretty mistress would never appear to have a cruel side to her, but she actually is one of the most manipulative mistress is alive. She loves to do horrible things to her slaves including humiliation and public. A slave is about to find out what foot worship is all about right in the middle of a department store. She could care less how stupid he looks.
Lisa is a creative mistress that is always busy with different things she is doing. One of them is having a loser slave come over and sniffed her socks. The slave is really pathetic and he is a loser, so she always makes sure he gets her socks that are the dirtiest. She will even show her sock into his mouth and tell him how pathetic he is to her.
Manon is a pretty French mistress that takes a great deal of enjoyment as she brutalizes a slave with her bare feet. She has always found her bare feet to be sexy, but taking her bare feet after they have been in socks all day and smashing them on her slaves phase provides her with a great deal of enjoyment. She is smiling as she humiliates her slave.
A Polish mistress loves to dominate her slaves, because she feels as though they are nothing but losers and deserve to be humiliated on a regular basis. The slaves are losers that enjoy foot worshiping, therefore she always has on her green nylons because she is going to make them suck all of the dirty smelly odor through the nylons. She is smiling because she is deeply amused by how pathetic her slave looks.
She doesn't seem to mind at all when she is having a full work week that is in the same pair of shoes, because at the end of each work week she is going to have her slave come over and worship her feet. This can be very brutal and gross, because she has been wearing the same pair of shoes for several days. Her slave must endure the smell.
This cute girl has fantasies that can be really fun, and sometimes they can be downright cruel and mean to her slave. She is going to have a day full of activities and lots of exercise, therefore her socks are going to be really dirty. Her slave is already at her house eagerly awaiting to smell and sniff her dirty socks. She is going to drink a glass of wine while humiliating her slave on the ground.
When this lovely lady gets going, she can do some of the most brutal acts to her slaves. One thing she enjoys doing is sitting in front of her fireplace as she starts to slap her slave. Even if her slave does not want to participate, he must otherwise the mistress is going to become extremely angry and she is going to verbally assault him and humiliate him as well.
This lovely mistress enjoys wonderful afternoons relaxing, and she also enjoys having her slave smell her feet. Personally it has always enjoyed the scent of her feet, even though every now and then her feet can be really gross and smelly. Her slave has a huge fetish for foot worshiping and he takes great pride in making sure his mistress is completely relaxed and comfortable every time.
When Rene goes to work, she looks amazing. As soon as she comes home, she takes off her shoes and puts them on her slave. She makes her slave smell her awful smelling feet. She puts them all over his face, rubbing the funk in. She then takes off her nylons and puts her bare feet into his face. She enjoys the way he pants so that he doesn't take all the funk it at once. It amuses her.
Savannah and Miss Asphyxia Noir enjoy having fun together. They love the kinky stuff so when they get together, they call a slave to serve them. Tonight, they have one of Miss Asphyxia Noir's slaves on duty. He is called over to lick their feet, sucking on their toes. They make him do this all night and when they are ready to. They spit in his mouth, forcing him to swallow. It's something they love to laugh and talk about as they smoke.
When Herrin Amy says something, she expects her slaves to listen. When they don't they are punished and stepped on. She puts them on the floor, making sure they are watching her. She steps in their face, hard enough to leave an imprint. She then takes her shoe off and puts it in his face, forcing him to breathe in the bad odors. She put her bare feet in his face and forced him to take several deep breaths.
When Shaphira goes outside, she loves to relax. She doesn't find anything relaxing about resting her feet on the dirty ground. Rather than rest her feet on the ground, she happily calls her slave to her side. She has him kneel and she rests her feet on his face. She doesn't care if he is uncomfortable. She refuses to put her feet on the dirty ground and his face will do.
When Miss Nikki calls her friend over, she knows her slave won't want to be seen. She knows that he is shy and she calls her most flamboyant friend over anyways. When her friend arrives, they sit on the couch and she calls her faithful slave out. She has him take her show off and start to lick her feet. She demands that he lick the feet of her guest as well. She knows that he is humiliated but he can't stop from getting hard while licking their feet.
Mistress Kitty is a sexy blonde mistress who is laying on the bed wearing her high heel boots as she texts on her phone. Her shave is on his knees by the foot of the bed and she makes his start licking the soles of her boots. There is a piece of chewed bubble gum on the sole of her boots and she makes him eat it off until her boots are spotless.
Mistress Liberty is a sexy red haired mistress that is sitting at her desk and being the dominate boss that she is. She decides that she wants to make some new rules so she makes her one employee come into the office and get down on his knees next to her desk. She then puts her bare feet in front of his face and she then makes him smell and worship her feet.
Mistress Morgan Moon and Lady Kate are two sexy brat girls and today they are having some fun with their loser slave Santa Clause as they make him kneel in front of them naked as they sit on the couch. They then take their shoes and make him use his tongue to lick them clean one pair at a time until all of their entire shoe collection is completely licked clean.
Mistress BlackDiamoonde is a sexy dark haired mistress that has spent the day shopping at the mall and when she came home she noticed that her sexy black heels were dirty. She made her slave take his tongue and lick her heels clean and when he is done she notices that he missed a spot. She gets mad and punishes him by locking him in his cage and making him lick all of her heels clean.
There are times that slaves are needed to do the dirty work. Kira is one that loves to use her slave's clean face as a wash rag. He is usually under her feet to hold her ottoman. When she is ready to get up, she sits on the ottoman and uses her slave's face to clean her filthy feet. She wipes the dirt and grime off her feet and makes sure to use his mouth as a wet towel.
Mistress Barbie Lee and her friend Miss Jenn have come home from a long night at the club and now their loser slave must pay for it as they take him and make him lick their sweaty and smelly feet clean with his tongue. These two sexy mistresses laugh and humiliate him as he licks their feet and they even take turns kicking him in the balls with their sexy bare feet.
Mistress Weronika is a sexy mistress that has very dirty and very dry feet that are in need of a good cleaning so she takes her slave Krysia and makes her lay on the floor and lick her feet clean with her tongue. She makes sure that her slave takes the time to lick every part of her feet with her tongue and makes sure that she gets her tongue in between every little toe so that she can have moist clean feet.
Lady Katharina is a sexy dominatrix that loves to make her slave worship her feet so today she took them and walked around all day in her bare feet so that her feet would be nice and filthy. She then makes her slave lay on the floor as she sits in her chair and puts her feet in his mouth and makes him lick her feet with his loser slave tongue.
Mistress Angelique and Mistress Saskia are two sexy mistresses that take and sit on the opposite ends of the couch facing each other naked. They both want to lick each others feet and they want to see who is more dominate. They lift their feet up to one another mouths and they start licking their feet being sure to take their time and worship their feet and pay attention to their toes and lick them clean.
Mistress Chelsea and Mistress Janet are two sexy babes that are enjoying a wonderful day at the park with their loser slave when they get a little bored so they decide to have some fun with their slave. They take their feet and put them into the dirty park dirt and then make their slave lick their feet clean with his tongue. He is such a loser as he eats all the dirt and these mistresses laugh at him the entire time.
This pool boy looks really stupid! I'm sure this is no real man... I believe I can have some fun with him *g* I order him to come over and stop cleaning the pool! Instead he can clean my dirty feet! Of course I have made them very dirty only for one purpose: To humiliate him! :-D And it looks like I do a good job! And he also tries to do a good job... what a loser!
Kacie is a sexy young thing getting her first taste of foot worship. She instructs her slave to keep his tongue in his mouth at all times but with sexy feet like hers he can't resist. She teases and punishes him all while staring her slave straight in the eye.
Vicious has had her boots on all day so she orders her foot slave to remove her boots and massage her feet. When he doesn't do a good enough job she punishes him by first rubbing her sweaty socks in his face. Then she shoves her bare feet at him and commands him to lick her soles and suck on her toes.
Tall princess Violetta and Empress Diamond are two beautiful women with incredible bodies, who love to force their foot slave to lick their sweaty feet. This sole licking slave loves foot worship, and is beyond happy as they put their bare feet all over his body and face. His humiliation is palpable as these two beautiful mistresses treat him like the foot slave that he is. They even trample his chest for good measure.
Right in the middle of the street in their neighborhood these sadosisters has got together and made this sole licking, foot slave lie on the hot concrete with his pants and underwear. While he is sucking on their dusty feet he is ordered to jack off while neighbors watch as if he wasn't humiliated enough.
Lady Roxana has her foot slave on his knees sucking on her toes as if he was giving some great head. All the while he is enduring her humiliation she smokes her cigarette; not wanting to put her ashes on her patio she flicks them in his hot mouth then he goes back to pleasing her sweaty feet until they are crystal clean.
This devil red mistress has it made. While finishing some work at her desk Destiny's foot slave is underneath her desk licking her striped sweaty socks. The humiliation is severe but he has a massive crush on her and will do anything to make her like him. Destiny pushes her bare feet right into his face and bosses him around so he can do the licking the way she wants it done or he's out.
Mistress Daemona de Lucca is craving for a little slave humiliation. She sits a top of her throne while her bound slave is butt naked. With her black high heel boots she crushes his cock and balls then has him get on his knees without complaining to give her boots a nice saliva shine. She holds on tight to his spiked collar leash and pulls when he is doing the wrong thing. Her luscious dark colored lips smile at what she has created.
Crystal doesn't feel like doing much tonight but sit on the couch. This new man wants to sit and talk about boring stuff. Crystal convinces him that foot smelling would be better than sitting here bored. Her foot slave lays on his back and lets her shove her sexy feet onto his face for a little humiliation. He can't breathe while her socks are in his face but she takes them off and have him lick her bare feet.
Wanting to give her friend punishment for being late to their date this mistress has made her foot slave lay and lick the bottoms of her heels. She orders him to do some humiliating things making him feel like the loser that he is. He does the shoe smelling until she wants more. He strips off her shoes and eagerly suck every last toe until all of the dirt is gone from in between them.
Samantha sure has fun with her husband Mark, humiliating him. He is forced to be her cuckold, and slave. She makes him stay in her place wearing only his underwear and gimp mask. He has to beg her to smell her sweaty feet. Of course she loves trampling his face and body. He has no choice but to live under her command and worship her feet because he is her bitch.
Mistress Kiara has been walking around in her sandals making her bare feet dirty and sweaty. She comes home to her foot slave and wants her feet worshiped as she relaxes her sore feet, she puts her feet on the table and watches as her foot slave begins to lick her dirty feet clean. This foot femdom loves humiliating her slave as she forces him to continue as sirens are heard behind them.
Lady Darkwink is sitting on the couch with her foot slave at her feet as she shoves her dirty sneakers in his face for him to worship, her slave begins to lick her shoes clean. He then takes of her shoes revealing her sweaty stinky feet, she shoves them in his face forcing him to smell them and lick her dirty feet clean. This foot femdom has no issue with her job.
Mistress Yas-min is out sunning on the patio playing with her bare feet underneath the table when she feels like getting her feet worshiped, she called her foot slave who come and worships her feet and begins licking her dirty feet as well as sucking her toes. She loves humiliating her slave as she commands him to stay on his knees because that's how pathetic he is and that he deserves to be on his knees.
Mistress Katja is ready to punish her slave, she commands him to lie on his back holding the couch that she is going to sit on. She sits down using her full weight to humiliate her slave as he shows true pain on his face. She shoves her high heels in his face forcing him to lick her soles clean, she laughs in his face as her slave struggles to keep the couch balanced.
Mistress Blondie has been in her shoes all day making her socks sweaty and making her feet stink, she loves humiliating her foot slave by commanding him to lie at her feet. She shoves her feet in his face forcing him to smell her stocking covered feet before she takes them off smothering his face with her toes. This foot femdom then lets him lick her dirty soles clean as she smiles at her slave.
Mistress Samantha is engaged and loves humiliating her fiancee, she has him put on a gimp mask and the punishment continues. This foot femdom gets paid to be her slave and begins begging for her attention, she commands him to lie down as she climbs on his back trampling his back with he sock covered feet using her full weight to cause him pain, he then gets to smell her stinky feet as he rubs them.
Jane and Layla are two Sado Sisters that are having a great time as they humiliate their worthless slave. The fun starts as they wrap his head in cling wrap and put him in the smother box. There he is forced to smell their feet as they verbally abuse him. He is freed from the smother box and cling wrap only to be forced to lick the bottoms of Jane's high heels and after which they trample his face.
These mean girls are out to to enjoy themselves as they take their slave out for some public humiliation. They find a place to park at a fetish club where there are a lot of girls. First they make their slave lick the bottom of different girls feet. Then as he kneels in the parking lot they get paid as girls line up to kick him with their boots.
These female footdoms walk in on some perv sniffing their stinky gym sneakers, they decide to punish him by giving him a ballbusting. They take turns kicking him hard in the nuts trying to drop him to the floor. These girls love humiliating him as they then force him to smell their stinky dirty bare feet and then lick their soles clean laughing at his suffering as they shove their feet in his mouth.
This young mistress is sitting down as her shoe slave is at her feet, he begins worshiping her dirty sneakers and begins to lick the dirty soles of her sneakers. She sits there reading her magazine as her slave smells her stinky sneakers as she shoves them in his face humiliating him, this foot femdom has no care for her slave as he sucks the tips of her shoes making sure her shoes are clean.